Geographic Location: Shantou locates in the east of Guangdong Province and in the south of the Hanjiang River Delta. It is adjacent to Raoping County of Chaozhou City to the northeast, Chao'an County of Chaozhou City to the north, Puning County of Jieyang City to the west, Huilai County of Jieyang City to the southwest, and the South China Sea to the southeast. Shantou City is geographically located between 116°14'40" and 117°19'35" East Longitude and between 23°02'33" and 23°38'50" North Latitude. It is 187 nautical miles away from Hong Kong, and 180 nautical miles away from Kaohsiung of Taiwan. Shantou City has always been an important transportation hub, an import and export port and a commodity distribution center in East Guangdong, South Jiangxi and Southwest Fujian, and known as the "Communication Center of South China and Gateway of East Guangdong".
Topographical Features: Topographically, Shantou is primarily composed of alluvial delta plains which account for 63.62％ of the total area of the city, following by 30.40％ of hilly mountains and 5.98％ of tablelands. Shantou City is located on coastal alluvial plains between the Lotus Mountain in East Guangdong and the South China Sea. Its topography tilts from the northwest to the southeast. From the northwest to the southeast, the city shows such sequential terrain features as medium and low mountains–hills, tablelands or terraces–alluvial plains or marine plains–sand banks and sea cliffs before the costal frontline–islands. Shantou has the Lotus Mountain in the northeast, the Sangpu Mountain in the northwest, and the Danan Mountain in the southwest. At the river outfalls along the southeast coast, there are alluvial plains, sea plains, marine erosion topographies, sea bays and islands. The Hanjiang River, Rongjiang River and Lianjiang River run through the city, and form at their outfalls the largest alluvial plain in East Guangdong. Shantou is a coastal city depending on the sea for its prosperity. Its downtown area and subordinate counties (districts) are all close to the sea. Shantou has a zigzag coastline and many islands. It enjoys 217.7kilometers of coastlines and island coastlines, and a total area of 10,000 km2 as ocean function zones, which is five times larger than the land area of the city. The city has 82 islands of different sizes. The largest island is Nan'ao Island. In the south of Nan'ao Island locates the highest peak in Shantou with an altitude of 587 meters. Nan'ao Island is also the only island county in Guangdong Province. Around the Island there are the Nanpeng Archipelago, Lemen Archipelago, Feng Island and Hu Island.
Climate: Shantou City locates on the southeast coast of Guangdong Province. Its coastline goes from the northeast to the southwest. Shantou is in the subtropical zone between the equator low pressure belt and the subtropical high pressure belt, and on the southern edge of the northeast trade wind zone. It is on the southeast end of the Eurasia Continent, the west coast of the Pacific Ocean, and close to the South China Sea. Shantou is under the influences of the northerly wind in winters and the southerly or southeast wind in summers, which bring the city distinctive monsoon climates. The Topic of Cancer passes through the north of Shantou City. With a marine climate of south subtropical zone, Shantou is warm and humid with sufficient sunlight and rainfall as well as a long frost-free period. Spring in Shantou is humid with long rainy days. Early summer features rising temperature and changing weathers with occasional rainstorms. In the midsummer, the temperature is high but the heat is not unbearable. This time is also the typhoon season in Shantou. Autumn is cool and dry in Shantou, when the sky is clear and the air temperature drops significantly. Winter is free from severe coldness; however chill weather will keep up for brief periods. Shantou enjoys sunshine for 2,000 to 2,500 hours annually with the shortest sunshine time in March. The annual rainfall in the city is 1,300 to 1,800 millimeters, and the raining season extends from April to September. The average annual temperature is 21℃ to 22℃ with the lowest temperature above 0℃ and the highest temperature ranging from 36℃ to 40℃, which are usually recorded in mid July and early August when the city is under the influences of the subtropical high pressure zone of the Pacific Ocean. Occasional frosty weather is also recorded in winter in Shantou.