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Geographic Location】Shantou, a city in the east of Guangdong Province, is situated in the south of the Hanjiang River Delta, adjacent to Raoping County, Chaozhou City to the northeast, next to Chaoan County, Chaozhou City to the north, next to Puning County, Jieyang City to the west, bordering on Huilai County, Jieyang City to the southwest, and facing South China Sea to the southeast. Shantou City is situated between longitudes 116°14’40"E to 117°19’35"E and latitudes 23°02’33"N to 23°38’50"E, 187 nautical miles to Hong Kong, and 160 nautical miles to Gaoxiong, Taiwan. Shantou City has been an important traffic pivot in the East Guangdong, South Jiangxi and Southwest Fujian region. It is an import and export port, a commodity distribution center, known as the "Communication Center of South China and Gateway of East Guangdong".

 
Topography】 Topographically, Shantou is composed of primarily delta alluvial plains accounting for 63.62% of the area of the entire city, secondly hilly mountains accounting for 30.40% of the land area, and thirdly tablelands accounting for 5.98% of the total area. Shantou City is located on coastal alluvial plains, in between the Lotus Mountain in East Guangdong and South China Sea. Its topography tilts from the northwest to the southeast. From the northwest to the southeast, its terrains are in turn medium and low mountains – hills, tablelands or terraces – alluvial plains or marine plains – sand banks and sea cliffs before the costal frontline – islands. There are the Lotus Mountain to the northeast, the Sangpu Mountain to the northwest, and the Danan Mountain to the southwest. At river outfalls along the southeast coast, there is the distribution of alluvial plains or sea plains and marine erosion topography as well as sea bays and islands. The midstream and downstream of the Hanjiang River, Rongjiang River and Lianjiang River pass through the city; the alluvial plain formed at the outfalls of these three rivers is the largest plain in East Guangdong. Shantou is situated near to the sea, prosperous because of the sea; its downtown and subordinate counties (districts) are all close to the sea. Shantou has a zigzag coastline and many islands. The length of the city coastline and island coastline is up to 289.1km; the working area included in the oceanic functional zone of Shantou City is approximately 10,000 sq.km., which is 5 times the land area. The city has 40 islands of different sizes, including 23 islands in Nanao, 1 island in Chaoyang, 12 islands in Shantou, 2 islands in Chenghai, and 2 islands in Niutianyang. The largest island is the Nanao island, whose western peak has an altitude of 587m, being the highest peak in Shantou. The Nanao island is the only island county in Guangdong province; around the island there are the Nanpeng archipelago, Lemen archipelago, Feng island and Hu island.

 
Climate】Shantou City is situated along the southeast coast of Guangdong province; its coastline goes from the northeast to the southwest; Shantou is a subtropical zone, located in between the low atmospheric pressure zone of the equator and high atmospheric pressure zone of subtropical zone, at the southern edge of northeast trade wind zone. Shantou City is situated at the southeast end of the Eurasia, the west coast of the Pacific Ocean, close to the South China Sea. Shantou has frequent northward wind in winter and southward or southeast wind in summer, which is provided with obvious characteristics of monsoon climate. The north tropic passes through the north of Shantou City. The city is in a marine climate of south subtropical zone. It is warm and humid; it has sufficient sunlight, an adequate rainfall, and a long frost-free period; in Spring, it has a damp weather and many rainy days; in the early summer, the air temperature rises, and changes a lot, and there are rainstorms from time to time; in midsummer, although the air temperature is high, there seldom are severe heats, and the city is often attacked by typhoons; in autumn, the climate is cool and dry, the sky is clear, the air temperature drops significantly; in winter, there is no severe cold but short term chillness. The annual sunshine time is 2,000-2,500 hours; The shortest sunshine time is in March. The annual rainfall is 1,300-1,800mm; most of the rainfalls happen in between April and September. The annual mean air temperature is 21℃-22℃; the lowest air temperature is above 0℃; the highest air temperature is 36℃-40℃, mostly happens in between mid July and early August, when the climate is controlled by the high atmospheric pressure of subtropical zone of the Pacific Ocean. In winter there are short frosting periods occasionally.(Source: Shantou Almanac 2008)



自然环境


【地理位置】汕头市位于广东省东部,韩江三角洲南端,东北接潮州市饶平县,北邻潮州市潮安县,西邻揭阳市普宁市,西南接揭阳市惠来县,东南濒临南海。全境位于东经116°14'40"—117°19'35"和北纬23°02'33"至23°38'50"之间,市区距香港187海里,距台湾高雄160海里。历来是粤东、赣南、闽西南一带的重要交通枢纽、进出口岸和商品集散地,素有“华南之要冲,粤东之门户”的美称。

【地形地貌】汕头地貌以三角洲冲积平原为主,占全市面积63.62%,丘陵山地次之,占土地面积30.40%,台地等占总面积5.98%。汕头市地处海滨冲积平原之上,处在粤东的莲花山脉到南海之间,境内地势自西北向东南倾斜,整个地形自西北向东南依次是中低山——丘陵,台地或阶地——冲积平原或海积平原——海岸前沿的砂陇和海蚀崖——岛屿。东北部有莲花山脉,西北是桑浦山,西南有大南山。东南部沿海沿出江口处为冲积平原或海积平原和海蚀地貌以及港湾和岛屿的分布。韩江、榕江、练江的中、下游流经市境,三江出口处成冲积平原,是粤东最大的平原。汕头依海而立,靠海而兴,市区及所辖各县(区)均临海洋。汕头海岸线曲折,岛屿多。全市海岸线和岛岸线长达289.1公里,纳入汕头市海洋功能区域工作面积约1万平方公里,是陆域面积的5倍之多。全市有大小岛屿40个,其中南澳23个、潮阳1个、汕头12个、澄海2个、牛田洋2个。最大的海岛是南澳岛,岛西部高峰海拔587米,是汕头的最高峰。南澳岛也是广东省唯一的海岛县,周围有南澎列岛、勒门列岛、凤屿、虎屿等。 
 
【气候】汕头市位于广东省东南沿海,海岸线走向自东北向西南,汕头属亚热带,处于赤道低气压带和副热带高气压带之间,在东北信风带的南缘。汕头市地处亚欧大陆的东南端、太平洋西岸,濒临南海。冬季常吹偏北风,夏季常吹偏南风或东南风,具有明显的季风气候特征。北回归线从汕头市区北域通过。全市属南亚热带海洋性气候。温和湿润,阳光充足,雨水充沛,无霜期长,春季潮湿,阴雨日多;初夏气温回升,冷暖多变,常有暴雨,盛夏虽高温而少酷暑,常受台风袭击;秋季凉爽干燥,天气晴朗,气温下降明显;冬无严寒,但有短期寒冷。年日照2000—2500小时,日照最短为3月份。年降雨量1300—1800毫米,多集中在4—9月份。年平均气温21℃—22℃,最低气温在0℃以上;最高气温36℃—40℃,多出现于7月中旬至8月初受太平洋副热带高压控制期间。冬季偶有短时霜冻。
资料来源:《汕头年鉴2008》
 
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